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Sanitizers and Disinfectants

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Agent

Brand names

Comments

Detergents/soaps

Various brands

While some soaps are formulated with antibacterial agents, e.g. Dial soap, most have little bactericidal activity. They are best used in conjunction with sanitizers.

Alcohol                  Ethanol      Isopropanol

 

Various brands

Both kinds of alcohols are used in clinics to sanitize surfaces. The optimum concentration of ethanol is 70% and 30% water. 70% ethanol has been shown to kill avian polyomavirus. The isopropanol purchased at the pharmacy usually comes at the correct concentration. To use, spread it on the surface and allow it to dry. It is the drying action that kills. Ethanol pads are sold for sanitizing the skin and cleaning wounds.

Chlorohexidine gluconates

Nolvasan

Virosan

Hibitane

Hibistat

Used as antiseptic to clean both surfaces and wounds. Effective against most bacteria and yeast, but not viruses, bacterial spores or the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Only partially effective against polyomavirus. Add it to the water in incubators and brooders to prevent growth.

Sodium hypochlorite

Chlorox

Purex

etc.

Bleach. This is very effective against bacteria, yeast, fungi, and viruses. It can be quite corrosive, and must be diluted for use. Avoid prolonged exposure to metals. It is wise to wear latex or other waterproof gloves with this sanitizer. The Centers for Disease Control recommends a 1:100 dilution (2.5 tablespoons per gallon) for killing C. psittaci. Chlorox has been shown to kill avian polyomavirus at a 1:10 dilution. Cheap!

Stabilized chlorine dioxide

Oxyfresh

Dent-A-Gene

 

Considered superior to bleach for disinfecting and does not have the odor. Effective against viruses and bacteria. Dent-A-Gene has been shown to kill avian polyomavirus at a 1:400 dilution. Do not use in concentrated form. Not deleterious to one’s hands at the low concentrations used for sanitation, i.e., at a 1:200 dilution.

Gluteraldehydes

Wavecide

Cidex

Sporcide

Banacide

Sterol

Sonacide

Cybact

MC-25

Effective against nearly all pathogens. Can be corrosive to metals and can cause skin damage. Use these in a well-ventilated area.

Iodophors

Wescodyne

Vanodine

Betadyne

Povidone

Scrubodyne  

Mikrocklene

These are detergents containing iodine. Effective against most pathogens but not polyoma virus, psittacine beak and feather virus or Ps. aeruginosa. Often used to clean skin and wounds. Will stain your skin.

Phenols

Lysol

One Stroke

O-syl

Avinol-3

LPH

Matar

Amerse

Environ

Staphhene

Phenols are one of the most effective disinfectants. After chlorine bleach it is the cheapest. Leaves residual odor on plastics. Take care about handling and ventilation. Reputed to be toxic to cats and reptiles. Avinol-3 has been shown to kill avian polyomavirus at a 1:256 dilution.

Quaternary Ammonium Compounds

Roccal-D

Quitacide

Parvosol

Hitor

Omega

Barquat

Merquat

Cetylcide

A-33

Floquat

Zephiran

Effective against most, but not all pathogens. Effective against most bacteria, including chlamydia, as well as some viruses. Not effective against fungi, spore forming bacteria, and hydrophilic viruses. Difficult to rinse away and its residue may be ingested by birds with disastrous results. The Centers for Disease Control recommends a 1:1000 dilution for killing C. psittaci.

Wood Tar Distillates

Pinesol

Hexol

These are only effective when mixed with detergents. They are generally deemed safe, but there is an unconfirmed report of young chicks dying from exposure.

Here are some additional web sites related to sanitizers and disinfectants:

Branson Ritchie manuscript This web site provides information about agents that inactivate avian polyomavirus.  

Birds n' Ways Website. This is another list of disinfectants used in aviculture with additional information.

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The Office of Pesticide Programs within EPA is the agency that regulates pesticides. These include antimicrobials, sanitizers and disinfectants.

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